There are many attractions and museums in the ancient city Uralsk. The wooden -house Museum of E.Pugachev is very popular among residents and visitors, which has a history and architecture of the XVII century. This large wooden house is located near the banks of the Ural River. It has an informal name – House of Pugachev. In fact, the house belonged to the Ural Cossack – Petr Mikhailovich Kuznetsov. There is a suggestion that he was the father of Ustina Kuznetsova, who was a wife of Pugachev. It is unknown information that P.Kuznetsov was the father-in-law of the famous rebel, but belonged house was the place of historical events of the Peasant War under direction of E.Pugachev (1773-1775).
Yemelyan Pugachev was born hundreds of miles away from Kazakhstan - in the Cossack village Zimoveysky (now Pugachev, Volgograd region). However, his fate was linked with Yaitsky (the ancient name of Uralsk). Here Pugachev presented himself as a king Peter III in the early 70 of the XVIII century, and called Cossacks - "to defend their rights for freedom with fire and sword". According to historical encyclopedia, the national uprising was in 1773-75 under the name of "The Peasant War".
Kazakhs of the little zhuz participated in the peasants’ war, which was led by Pugachev. Their purpose was freedom from the king's pressure. This war consisted of three stages and lost the war in 1775. Pugachev went to Moscow for certain death under guard. Peasant uprising, in which Kazakhs of little and middle zhuzes participated, affected to the beginning of the national liberation movement of the Kazakh people against the Russian colonization.
Pugachev’s attempt to win the freedom rights for himself and associates was failed. Ultimately, the uprising was crushed, and initiators and ideological inspirers were sentenced to death by the supreme power. Empress Ekaterina II ordered to rename the river and the city, where was "the birthplace of the spark of dissent" in order to erase the memory of people forever about history of the Pugachev rebellion. Thus, towns Yaik and Yaitsky were lost from the map of Kazakhstan, and this place became the Ural River, accordingly Uralsk.
House-Museum of Pugachev presents a typical hut of Yaik Cossacks of the eighteenth century - the log walls, plank roof. Library housed this building until 1967. In 1991, the house-museum of Pugachev was as one of the branches, which was added to list of the West-Kazakhstan regional historical local museum.
The museum has original things that once belonged to Pugachev and his companions - weapons, flags, guns, gifts, household supplies. According to guides – exhibits transmit all peculiar features of Yaik Cossacks’ life.
The museum has unique authentic artifacts, which is associated with E.Pugachev and his revolt. Among them: Pugachev’s throne, on which he presented himself as Peter III in 1773; mittens of Ekaterina II, which was given to Kazakhs who participated on the suppression of the Pugachev uprising; a bronze bell, which belonged to E. Pugachev; peasants’ flag of Pugachev’s revolt.
A special place in the exhibition is taken by the layout of the iron cage in which E.Pugachev was driven to Moscow for king's trial and execution.
The historic building of the museum was completely renovated in 2004. Due to the fact that the building is an architectural monument with national significance, the repair work were done by specialists of the Republican Scientific-Research Institute of Historical and Cultural Monuments, experienced conservators and artists of "Dara" from Astana. Restorers imposed bottom of huts with red brick, log walls covered with a special solution, which prevents the wood from rotting, a new porch, and the building is fenced with tracery metal fence.
Memorial part was also changed after repair of E.Pugachev Museum. Significantly it is updated with collection of exhibits.